Chillers (water-cooling plant)
Chiller is a chilling machine that removes heat from a liquid. Most often this type of equipment used in central air-conditioning systems. There are two types of chillers:
- Air-cooled condenser.
- Water-cooled condenser.
This is so called monoblock chillers – they include all the necessary elements of refrigeration cycle – compressor, condenser, evaporator, stop valves, protection and automation elements in their design. Also, they come with axial fans (designs for open space installation), with a heat pump (they work both for cooling and heating) and without pump (only for cooling). Air-cooled chillers are highly efficient solutions for all kinds of industrial applications.
With centrifugal fans – they have more complex design compared with axial-fan chillers and are designed for indoor installation (attics, cellars, utility rooms). Air for condenser cooling is taken from room, where chiller is installed and then discharged to the outside air through a discharge duct. Such chillers also come with a heat pump (cold / heat) and without a heat pump (only cooling). They can be designed with a remote condenser. In that case capacitor is installed in the street while chiller is located indoor.
Chillers with water-cooled condenser
Water-cooled chillers are easier to design compared with air-cooled chillers. However, for efficient use they need constant usage of running water, or circulating water system is necessary to install.
Absorption chillers – they are used for operation in conditions of scarce electrical energy resources. Such equipment characterized by the presence of the thermal-chemical compressor. They consist of a thermal generator, condenser, evaporator, absorber and pumps. Its allowed to use secondary energy resources (waste heat of hot water, superheated steam, combustion of natural gas, fuel oil and other petroleum products). A heat-consuming principle is used in contrast to conventional compression machines.
- Meat, fish and poultry industries
- Dairy and ice cream factories
- Production of wine, alcoholic beverages, mineral and carbonated water
- Confectionery and bakery production
- Manufacture of plastic, rubber, paints, cosmetics
- Metalworking production
- Air conditioning of buildings, offices, shopping centers, industrial premises
- Server cooling
Advantages of chillers
Scalability. The number of fan coils on a central chiller is practically limited only by its performance
Minimum space requirement. Air conditioning system of a large building can contain only single chiller occupying minimum area.
Practically unlimited distance between the chiller and fan coils. Length of the traces can reach hundreds of meters, since high heat capacity of the heat transfer fluid, the specific losses per meter of the route are much lower than in systems with gas refrigerant.
Wiring cost. Simple shut-off valves and water pipes are used to connect chillers and fan coils. Equalizing the pressure and flow rate of water between individual fan coil units, is much simpler and cheaper than in gas-filled systems.
Safety. Potentially volatile gases are concentrated in the chiller, which is installed as a rule in the open space (on the roof or directly on the ground).
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